عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
To investigate the information status of preposed elements , informative function of topicalization and passivization and also the significant factors on informative function of these two Processes , , r · topicalized and passive constructions were collected form Makhmalbaf' s published stories. Analyzing the data , it was found that the frequency of preposed elements with information status of [+ new] is high. In the research , the effect of three kinds of information -focus structure on the above -mentioned processes has been specified: sentence -focus structure , predicate -focus structure and argument -focus structure. The frequency of them and their codification at syntactic level were affected by cognitive and mental situations of discoursal entities. In addition , it was concluded that informative function of topicalization and passivization depend on some factors: the speaker's assumed familiarity with hearer's mentalities and knowledge , the contextual situation (linguistic/ non -Iinguistic) such as definiteness and reference.